English Conversation

Practice Makes Perfect: English Conversation (Practice Makes Perfect Series)

English Conversation – Practice Makes Perfect

Practice Makes Perfect: English Conversation (Practice Makes Perfect Series)

Learn how to speak English fluently and spontaneously with helpful instruction on correct pronunciation, grammar, syntax, and word usage, keeping in mind the typical problems of non-native English speakers. Includes engaging dialogues to illustrate practical conversational situations and example phrases or sentences to clarify each point. Practical and high-frequency vocabulary used throughout.

Practice Makes Perfect: English Conversation offers:
Engaging dialogues illustrate practical conversational situations
Example phrases or sentences clarify each point
A variety of exercises for practice, with an answer key that provides instant feedback and reference
Practical and high-frequency vocabulary used throughout.

Download from this link: http://bit.ly/1KjrYPN

Real Life Elementary Episode 3.

Episode 3:
In this episode, the whole family goes to a café. They
discuss what they are going to order but Jon finds it
difficult to choose what to eat. When the waiter comes to
take the order, Jon is finally able to make a decision. Dave
appears and is invited to join them but he has a previous
arrangement with friends. Anna’s attitude to Dave again
gives Mark the opportunity to make fun of her.

Functional language

Scenes 1, 2 and 3 Offering and ordering food and
drink; asking and saying prices

Before you watch

Elicit what happened in the previous episode. Ask
students how often they eat out. Where do they go?
What are their favourite cafés or restaurants?

Vocabulary to be pre-taught or checked

Choice hurry up a slice of smoothie sir/madam

Extra questions

Scene 1

What kinds of food are healthy?

Scene 2

What would you order?

Scene 3

What kinds of food do you think are ‘yummy’?

Constitutional Struggles in the Muslim World by Dr Ebrahim Afsah, M.Phil., MPA/ Essay number 2.



Definition of under-performance.

There is no doubt that institutions are the rules of the game in a society or, more formally, are the humanly devised constraints that shape human interaction. In consequence, they structure incentives in human exchange, whether political, social, economic or military. Institutional change shapes the way societies evolve through time and hence is the key to understanding historical change.
That institution affects the performance of economies is hardly controversial. That the differential of under-performance of the Muslim states, economies over time is fundamentally influenced by the way institutions evolve is also not controversial. Yet neither current economic theory nor biometric history shows many signs of appreciating the role of institutions in economic performance because there as yet has been no analytical framework to integrate institutional analysis into economics and economic history.

The role of institutions.

The factors contributing to economic growth in developed and developing states is a topic that is hotly debated amongst economists. One thing that is for certain is that the strength and functionality of a state’s institutions plays a vital role in the Muslim states whether or not the policies set forth by the leaders of the state will be successful. There seems to be no other explanation for the lack of development in certain countries in which good economic policy reforms have been applied, other than they did not possess the quality institutions necessary to support such reform. Before attempting to analyze the relationship between quality institutions and economic development I feel it is important to address the issue of defining what it is that constitutes an institution that is invaluable to economic growth. It would be impossible to make a logical case for the necessity of strong institutions in a developing economy if there was not first a definition set forth defining what that is. It is difficult to argue the purpose of something if there is no definition of what that something is. The problem that arises when attempting to come up with a universal definition for institutions is the variety of ways that institutions can function. A form of institution that functions a certain way in one country may not necessarily function the same in another. It is therefore extremely difficult to establish a set of institutions that are necessary for the development of an economy when different countries are run in ways that dictate the need for different institutions to be emphasized and to serve varying functions. Because of the fact that different institutions serve different functions in different countries, it is my conclusion that there can be no set standard that defines what institutions are necessary for the development of a states’ economy.

Reasons for this negative trends.

Despite the disparity in the levels of development that have occurred, there is evidence to suggest that some countries have experienced an accelerated rate of catch up. It is my belief that this rapid acceleration of some formerly underdeveloped states is a result of them applying policy reforms and strengthening institutions that they have seen to be successful in already developed states. It has taken decades, even centuries, for today’s developed states to establish the policies and institutions they have in place today.

Exceptions from this general trend and their recipe for relative success.

After the fall of the U.S.S.R., the communist leaders were removed from office and new leaders assumed control. This caused the Islamic states that were experiencing this transition to walking a fine line of reducing autonomy while still retaining enough power to implement and enforce the new policies. One of the most critical tasks of the new governments was to establish a rule of Islamic law.

The role of political Islam or Islamisation campaigns.

This involved creating certain critical institutions: revising or rewriting the constitution to establish civil rights and freedoms, creating a separation of powers between branches of government, revamping judicial bodies and high courts, generating electoral laws and regulating political parties, and doing all of this in such a way as to generate support among the majority of actors in society.
These Islamic countries looked to the most developed states (United States, Western Europe) as a guide for their own political system. A critical part of the transition towards becoming a liberal democracy was for states to alter or replace any existing constitution that had so long been ignored by the communist rulers. A good constitution is a cornerstone upon which the laws of a country are built. The new constitutions had to be designed in a way so as to ensure the freedoms and liberties of the people of that country as well as to keep the political rulers in check. This establishment of Islamic laws that were intended to actually last and be adhered to require the strengthening of the judicial system. Under communist rule, the laws of a country could simply be changed when they conflicted with the will of those who governed, thus rendering the judicial system practically non-existent. Strengthening the judicial system was necessary in order to uphold and interpret the laws of the new constitution.


These Islamic institutions all had to be implemented in such a way as to generate support among the majority of actors in their society. However, not all of the post-communist states have fared the same. Some states have managed to develop more rapidly and successfully than others and some have become “more free” than others. One reason behind the varying amounts of success experienced by post-communist countries in their attempts to become democratized is their geographical location. The farther Islamic states are from Western-Europe, the less strong the pro-democratic pull seems to be. Another reason for this is that this was the first time in history that Islamic states had attempted to make the transition out of communism and into capitalism. This meant that there was no model in existence for the post-communist countries to follow. They simply saw the institutions, and functions thereof, which had proven successful in the economic development of previously established liberal democracies and did their best to replicate them. Those post-communist countries that have shown the greatest improvement in their levels of political rights and civil liberties since the fall of the Soviet Union stand as evidence that strong institutions are at the core of successful economic development.

1- Institutions institutional change and economic performance by Douglass C. North.
2- Videos, Dr. Ebrahim Afsah, 1.7 , 9.4.

Here comes my course certificate‘s link.

Constitutional Struggles in the Muslim World by Dr Ebrahim Afsah, M.Phil., MPA/ Essay number 1.


“The past is a foreign country.” David Lowenthal


There is no doubt that there could be many discussions and talks on the nature of Iranian modernity. This subject requires an independent discussion. Several implications and terms have been used to introduce Iranian modernity in contemporary time. Traditionalism, economic independence, fundamentalism, dogmatism, emulation, secularism, religious reform and others are among terms which have been used by the Iranian intellects and politicians to express new Iranian situation. It seems that the entire terms mentioned above have been aiming at the contextual elements of the Iranian modernity. If so, the Iranian modernity is not a pure and integrated issue; but is in fact a mixed and historical matter with several peaks. The main peaks are religious-trends and anti-religious thoughts, westernization and anti-western ideologies. What we are discussing is the result of mixing all these elements and categories.

Question 1

After World War II, most of the social and political thinkers have thought that the only way of developing the third world countries is following by the Western countries. This idea has internalized by governors by making a new planning and managing of the development institution and train the people. Because of dismissing the internal factors such as human resources and cultural matters this plan has failed. Therefore, many of the developing thinkers have changed their ideas and criticized modernization paradigm. The paradigm changes from the traditional view which focuses on a general and unify plan to the new one (Hage, 1980, Wallarstine, 1989, and Berman, 2000). They have supposed the idea that each country can develop based on its social, cultural, and economic circumstances. Berman has emphasized on different versions of modernization in all of the world. On the other hand, the only way of seeing this process theoretically right is to focus each culture and society based on its experiences. In terms of the history of modern era in Iran, relationship with European societies in the 19th century gave a new appearance to the domestic activities of the country in political, cultural and economic respects and made Iran a country different from both its own past and other countries of the region.

Question 2

On the other hand, The challenge is becoming acute in the wake of the recent upheavals and transformations that have been ongoing, arrival of military technology, industry sets, new trade and banking system, modern knowledge and science, establishing some new institutions such universities and schools, new ways of training and education, communication means, books publication, photography industry, social and cultural evens such as social movement in Qajar regime and later Constitutional Revolution in 1905 and followed it by the Iranian/ Islamic Revolution in 1979 were all effective in the development of the new environment in Iran. This new era has been defined by social scientists and Intellectuals as modern era (Azadarmaki, 2001)

Question 3

Each one of the above-mentioned elements had have a different role in changing the Iranian traditional world to new, developing a modern world. This shows that Iran is a society in the international context not isolated part. Iran has gotten the modern position through the international society. Hence, it is not true to say that Iran is out of the international and global space because of dual relationships. It should say that there is common and mutual relationship between Iran and Western countries and cultures over time. The main idea in different levels (individual, local, institutional, national, and international ones) the society get modern.
To nominate event(s), time or space for starting position of Iranian modernity is very hard. Because there is less common sense among Iranian intellectuals on this matter. Some believe the role of printing books and literature as to be higher than technology (Bahar, 1299 (1920)) while those who defend materialistic development believe technology as to be more important than cultural and literacy renovation. Nevertheless, this paper is not trying to identify the difference of views in this area. In terms of the above theoretical view, we are concerned to discuss and identify the new situation of Iran within the framework of global modernity not Western modernity. Hence, the main question is as follow: “What is the nature and characteristics of Iranian Modernity?”. If we want to have a perfect understanding on this situation, we should work on a broad framework which many questions can be raised:
Is Iranian modernity a suitable term in expressing the new situation of Iran?
Within what processes the Iranian modern experience have formed?
What are the characteristics, specifications and elements of Iranian modernity?
Who have been the main builders, administrators and refiners of Iranian modernity?
Is Iranian modernity acquirable, examinable with capacities to be empirically examined or, if it is a subject just to be sensed?
Based on our main aim in this paper, among the above questions, we are going to work on the following question: “What is the nature of the new situation of Iranian society. Emphasizing on “present” as reality is the main idea which many Iranian intellectuals, artists, movie makers, writers, and politicians have focused and started their thought and activities on. For example, Iranian movie makers labeled their works based on Iranian not nobody or savaged and backward people. They have dogged their everyday social life and make movies on it. The results of emphasizing and understanding “the present time and situation” has been developed based on their experiences in the present. The Iranian modernity is emotional, sensational and humanitarian. The Iranian modernity is a mixture (national and global) phenomenon.


In discussing on the concept of Iranian modernity I have been depended on the following assumption: any society in the contemporary world has its own way of development and modernization. It is not true that all of the societies follow the way of development and modernization which Western countries have done. Each society can be developed based on its social and cultural circumstances. Therefore, any society is somehow in some levels of modernization and have its own modernity.

Here comes my course certificate‘s link.

Cambridge International Dictionary of Idioms.

Cambridge International Dictionary of Idioms
: The Cambridge International Dictionary of Idioms explains over 7,000 idioms current in British, American and Australian English, helping learners to understand them and use them with confidence. Author: James Gordon White Publisher: Cambridge University Press Pages: 521 Format: PDF Quality: High Download Cambridge International Dictionary of Idioms (Mediafire): http://www.mediafire.com/view/?6647cl8vd5mq3c7

Speakout Starter Podcasts Episode 1.


* Write your answers to Andrea’s questions.
1 What’s your name?
2 Where are you from?
3 What’s your job?

Real Life Elementary Episode 1.

In this episode, we are introduced to the Benton family. They are getting ready to go on holiday to Cornwall. We see them get in the car, check they have got everything and then head off to Cornwall. When they get there, they set up their tents at the campsite and we learn that the children, Mark and Anna, are not sharing a tent with their parents, Sally and John. Finally, while Mark and Anna are unpacking, Dave, the surfing instructor, comes over and introduces himself, much to Anna’s delight and Mark’s amusement.

Background information:

Stonehenge is a prehistoric set of large standing stones in the south-west of England. It is thought the stones were erected between 2500 and 3000 years BC. There are many theories on the purpose of Stonehenge but no one theory has ever been proved. Theories include it being a type of temple or place of healing. There is also no explanation about how the stones were erected.


Scene 1

Describe what each character looks like.

Scene 2

Does a camping holiday look fun?

Scene 3

What things do you take on holiday?

New English File/ Elementary.

New English File/ Elementary.

Oxford – New English File Elementary Student’s Book (PDF+ CDs)


The completely new edition of English File 1, is based on the principles that have made English File so popular.

Key features:

100% new lessons that work, that are fun, and that get students talking.

An expanded Vocabulary Bank.

A new Grammar Bank section with rules and exercises.

Practical English lessons, a focus on functional language supported by the New English File Study Link Videos. The same unequalled level of teacher support.


All new lessons and a clear new design A new Grammar Bank with rules and exercises An expanded Vocabulary Bank Practical English lessons – a new focus on everyday language which ties in with the Study Link Video A Writing page for every File ‘Revise and Check’ pages for every File.

Click on the link belowDownload

Student’s book, CDs, workbook, and workbook keys.

New English File/ Beginner

New English File/ Beginner.


This series with all of it’s resource materials is the best out there as far as I (with my 17 years of English teaching experience) can see. It is well-designed and you can just feel that it’s been thoroughly tested in action. The speed of the course is just fine as long as the students had the appropriate level to begin with (not too low). The workbook is excellent homework material for students. If the students have the appropriate level, if they study and actually attend your classes and if they are punctual, they can keep up with the classes just fine. As always the onus is on the students to actually do their homework.

The down side to this workbook plus “MultiRom” is that when you receive it, you may not actually know how to make it work. It’s supposed to work in your CD player as a CD and in your computer as a PC-program, but mine didn’t in both Windows Vista and XP and I’m an advanced user. If you have a problem and you need assistance from their technical support department, good luck. I’ve called every support number available and every single one of them passed the buck through to some answering machine. Their post-purchase service is hell.

Student’s Book, Class Audio CDs.

Key features:

* 100% new.

* Motivating, real-world material.

* Grammar Bank with rules and exercises.

* Illustrated Vocabulary Bank and Sound Bank.

* Practical English with authentic interviews.

* The perfect balance of grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and skills to get the students speaking English with confidence.

* Shorter syllabus for Beginner-level students.

* Three CDs of class listening material.


* Student’s Book:  Student’s book for beginner

* CD1: Audio CD

* CD2: Audio CD

* CD3: Audio CD

Teacher’s book

The password of the workbook is: englishtips.org

* Workbook with audio CD 

How to Talk about Age in the English Language.

How to Talk about Age in the English Language

Learn how to express age in English.

In English, you can talk about age in a number of different ways to say how old someone or something is. For example, you can talk about exact or similar age, or you can be less precise and indicate the approximate age of a person or thing.

Asking about Age

When you want to ask about the age of a person or thing, you use the following formula:

How + old + the conjugated form of the verb be + a person or thing + question mark

How old are you? / How old is your brother?

Talking about Exact Age

When you want to state the exact age of a person or thing, you use the conjugated form of the verb be followed by a number. For example:

My sister is twenty-five.

You can also put years old or years of age after the number for emphasis. For example:

My sister is twenty-five years old.
My sister is twenty-five years of age. (years of age is more formal than years old and is more common in written English)

You can also use the adjective aged to express someone’s age. For example:

My friend has two little boys aged eight and ten.

Warning: Never use the verb have to talk about age in English. Don’t say,”He has fourteen years.” It’s incorrect.

You can also express someone’s exact age by placing a compound adjective in front of a noun:

My neighbor is a twenty-three-year-old (compound adj.) student.
I have a four-month-old (compound adj.) baby.
I have a four-months-old baby. incorrect

Warning: Note that the nouns year and month are always singular in such compound adjectives.

Talking about Approximate Age

When you’re not sure exactly how old someone is, or when you do not want to state their exact age, then you can use the verb be followed by the prepositions about, under and over, or the adverbs nearly and almost, and a number. For example:

I think he’s about fifty. / She must be under twenty. / I’m sure she’s nearly thirty. / He was only a little over forty years old. / I’m almost twenty.

To indicate approximate age, you can also use the expressions above the age of and below the age of. For example:

Most students in my class are above/below the age of twenty.

Young people aged thirteen to nineteen are said to be in their teens. For example:

I listened to Elvis Presley all the time when I was in my teens.

You can also state someone’s approximate age by saying the following:

He is in his twenties/thirties/forties, etc.

Talking about Similar Ages

When you want to say that someone’s age is similar to someone else’s, you can use the expressions such as my age, your own age, or her parents’s age. For example:

I know a lot more about life than most girls my age.
The couple was about her parents’ age. / The detective was about his own age.

Indicating the Age of a Thing

If you want to say how old something is, you can use the verb be followed by a number and followed by years old.

My house is about forty years old.

Warning: When stating the age of a thing, you can’t just use the conjugated form of the verb be followed by a numeral. You must always add the expression years old. You can’t say, ”My house is about forty.”

A very common way of stating the age of a thing is to use a compound adjective in front of the noun referring to it. For example:

Mr. Black’s rattling, twenty-year-old car stands in front of his house.


Useful and Educational Sites

Useful Links: